Fissures are a break in the mucosa (lining) of the anus that causes pain (usually like broken glass or a tear) and bright rectal bleeding. It is benign and can usually be treated by ointments. It takes a few weeks for the symptoms to settle and the break to heal.
Occasionally surgery may be needed to sort the problem out.
Involuntary leakage of faeces (liquid or solid) through the anus. Usually due to weakness of muscles around the anus. There are multiple causes but more commonly, it is found in women who have had children. It tends to present years after their children with the onset of age when muscles are weaker.
Treatment varies. It includes simple measures like suppsositories, biofeedback. However surgery may be needed in some patients.
Bowel cancer is the second most common cancer. It affects the anus, rectum and the colon. Majority of patients affected are over 40. Symptoms include rectal bleeding, change in bowel habit. Both of these are also common in other benign conditions. In more urgent cases, there could be bowel blockage.
Most cases of bowel cancer are treatable and this is ususally by surgery. In anal cancers, it usually with radiotherapy and chemotherapy. In other cases, all three could be used in various combination. More Information.
This is an endoscopic (camera) examination of the large bowel (colon). It needs special preparation to clear the bowel out. This usually involves being on low residue diet for a few days before the test and on the day before, to take strong laxatives to clear the bowel out.
At the time of the colonoscopy, most patients are given a sedative and pain killers to relax them during the test. It however can still be uncomfortable for some patients.